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International legal registration of Kazakhstan State Border with neighboring States

The strategy of development "Kazakhstan-2030" put a political task to provide national security of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Implementation of this task would guarantee preservation of state sovereignty, maintenance of territorial integrity and inviolability of borders.

Taking into account that the disintegration of the USSR led former union republics to the necessity of the resolving territorial problem, Kazakhstan has actively joined the process of negotiations on defining its borders.

International legal registration of Kazakhstan State Border with the People’s Republic of China

Delimitation

Until 1991 negotiations with China were held by the Soviet governmental delegation with participation of representatives of the republics bordering the People's Republic of China. In 1992 according to the Agreement between the Governments of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tajikistan on negotiations with the People's Republic of China on boundary issues signed on 8 September 1992, a Joint delegation of the Governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan was set up for negotiating with the People's Republic of China.

Kazakhstan started negotiations with China on mutual reduction of armed forces and strengthening confidence in military sphere in the area of the Kazakh-Chinese border.

Negotiations on delimitation were held in 1992-1998, and the process of demarcation was completed in 2002.

Eight Treaties and Protocols signed between the Russian Empire and China in XIX century laid the foundation of the negotiating process.

As a result of bilateral meetings the following international treaties which precisely defined and described in detail the passage of a line of the Kazakh-Chinese border and its designation on district border marks were signed:

1. The Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the People's Republic of China on the Kazakh-Chinese State border, April 26th, 1994;

2. The Additional Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the People's Republic of China on the Kazakh-Chinese State border, September 24th, 1997;

3. The Additional Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the People's Republic of China on the Kazakh-Chinese State border, July 4th, 1998;

Demarcation

Demarcation of border with China was carried out by the Joint Kazakh-Chinese demarcation commission established by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the People's Republic of China in accordance with Article 4 of the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the People's Republic of China on the Kazakh-Chinese State border dated April 26th, 1994.

Demarcation works were carried out by six working groups in 1996-2001 and completed by signing the Protocol between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the People's Republic of China on demarcation of the line of the Kazakh-Chinese State border by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan K. Tokayev and China Tan Tsyasyuan on 10 May 2002 in Beijing.

The general length of the demarcated Kazakh-Chinese State border is 1 783 km, of them overland border - 1 215,86 km., water - 566,89 km. the border line was marked with 688 border marks, 346 of which are installed by Kazakhstan.

International legal registration of Kazakhstan State Border with the States of Commonwealth of Independent States

The legal documents of a general character that determined principles of recognition of the administrative-territorial division of the former USSR were the Almaty Declaration singed on December 21st 1991, the Declaration on observance of principles of cooperation within the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States dated February 14th 1992, the Declaration on observance of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders of the member-states of the Commonwealth of Independent States of April 15th 1994, other bilateral treaties, the acts of the Supreme Council. According to the mentioned documents the Parties have recognized administrative-territorial division of the republics as a basis for boundary negotiations.

A general prominent feature of administrative borders between former Soviet republics was that actually developed line of border mismatched the positions of legal documents available. In these cases the parties made mutually acceptable decisions with the account of national and economic interests by parity division and exchange of areas.

Kazakhstan set up a Governmental Commission on delimitation of the state border with Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. (According to the Kazakhstan Governmental Resolution №1283, September 1, 1999) Within the framework of the Commission the Ministry of Foreign Affairs formed corresponding Governmental delegations which included representatives of ministries and local executives, experts from various organizations, geodesists, cartographers, hydrologists.

The legal base and available materials in the Central State archive, in the ministries and departments, specialized bodies of the Republic of Kazakhstan were carefully scrutinized, the principles and the technique of negotiating with each state were also developed. Members of delegation and representatives of working groups met with local population and authorities. With the purpose of informing the population on the state and course of the negotiating process, press conferences were held and interviews for mass media were given. Field departures district, air and space photographs of the border strip and other measures were carried out.

Kazakh-Uzbek State Border

Delimitation

The process of delimitation of the Kazakh-Uzbek State border took place in 2000-2002. It can be divided into two stages.

1. Preparation of the Treaty between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Uzbekistan on the Kazakhstan-Uzbek State border, signed by the Heads of the States on November 16th, 2001 in Astana which defined the passage of the border line of 96 % of its general length.

2. Preparation of the Treaty between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Uzbekistan on the separate areas of the Kazakh-Uzbek State border, signed by the Presidents of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan on September 9th, 2002 in Astana which defined the line of joint border.

Those Treaties on the Kazakh-Uzbek State border entered into force on September 5th, 2003.

Demarcation

The process of demarcation of the Kazakh-Uzbek State border started in 2003, and field works commenced on April 2004.

Demarcation work on the installation of the boundary posts on the border is almost finished. The installation of boundary mark at the Junction Point of the State borders of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is remained.

Border line is marked with 1565 basic and transitional boundary posts, 776 of which are installed by Kazakhstan.

At the present time, the work on preparation of state border demarcation final documents is held by parties.   

Kazakh-Turkmen State Border

Delimitation

The Treaty between the Republic of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan on delimitation and the process of demarcation of the Kazakhstan-Turkmen State border was signed by the Heads of the States on July 5th, 2001 in Astana.

Negotiations on delimitation of the Kazakh-Turkmen State border were held in 2000-2001 in constructive and official way. The parties did not have suggestions on updating that line of border defined in 1972 between Kazakh Soviet Socialistic Republic and Turkmen Soviet Socialistic Republic.

Demarcation

Measures on demarcation of the joint border started in 2003. The parties started establishment of border marks on the border in 2005.

The States finished boundary posts installation on Kazakh-Turkmen state border except for the area of Junction Point of the State borders of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Border line is marked with 366 border pillars, 178 of which are installed by Kazakhstan.

At the present time, the work on preparation of state border demarcation final documents and The Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan on the demarcation of Kazakh-Turkmen State border is held by parties.   

Kazakh-Kyrgyz State Border

Delimitation

Negotiations on the delimitation of the Kazakh-Kyrgyz state border were held in 1999-2001 and completed by the Treaty between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic on the Kazakhstan-Kyrgyz State border signed by the heads of the states in Astana on 15th December 2001. The Treaty entered into force on August 5, 2008.

Bilateral negotiations were held in constructive and official way based on principles of mutual respect and equality.

Demarcation

The parties have begun negotiations on the demarcation of state borders and the installation of boundary markers along the border between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic in autumn, 2008.

Demarcation work on the installation of the boundary posts on the border was finished in 2014. There are 1055 border pillars installed along the Kazakh-Kyrgyz state border. (533 of which belong to Kazakhstan)

At the present time, the work on preparation of state border demarcation final documents and The Treaty between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic on the demarcation of Kazakh-Kyrgyz State border is held by parties.   

Kazaks-Russian State Border

Delimitation

The negotiations on delimitation of the Kazakh-Russian State border were conducted in 1999-2005.

On January, 18th, 2005 in Moscow during an official visit of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev to the Russian Federation the Heads of the States signed the Treaty between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation on the Kazakh-Russian border. The general length of overland site of the border is about 7 591 km.

By the signing of the Treaty on the Kazakh-Russian State border Kazakhstan completed the legal definition of the overland border across the entire perimeter. The Treaty entered into force on January 12th 2006.

Demarcation

Kazakh-Russian joint commission on the demarcation of state border commenced its work in July, 2007.

On May 2009, the parties began to install of boundary markers along the border between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation.

At the present time there are about 5200 km of demarcated state border which is 69% of the whole lenth of the Kazakh-Russian border. More than 3000 border marks are already settled.

Junction Points of the border of the Republic of Kazakhstan with neighboring states

There are four Junction points of the borders of the neighboring states on the border of Kazakhstan. Following trilateral international treaties were signed and came into force:

1. The Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on the definition of the Junction point of the borders of three states of May 5 1999;

2. The Agreement between the Republic Kazakhstan, the People's Republic of China and the Kyrgyz Republic on the Junction point of the borders of three states of August 25 1999;

3. The Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Republic of Uzbekistan on the Junction point of the borders of the three states signed on June 15 2001.

The signing of the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan on the area of the Junction point of the borders of three states is still continuing.

The general extent of border is about 13 383 km, of them:

- With the People's Republic of China- about 1 783 km;

- With the Kyrgyz Republic - about 1 257 km;

- With the Republic of Uzbekistan - about 2 351 km;

- With Turkmenistan - about 458.3 km;

- With the Russian Federation - about 7 548 km.