In September 1996 the UN General Assembly voted by a majority in favor of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
The CTBT is one of the cornerstones in the system of international security and nuclear non-proliferation.
It is worth mentioning that in accordance with the Article XIV of the CNTBT, 44 Annex 2 countries having nuclear potential shall ratify the Treaty. Entrance of the Treaty into force depends on 8 out of 44 Annex 2 countries (USA, China, Iran, Egypt, Israel, India and Pakistan).
According to the CTBT every state party is obliged not to conduct nuclear tests, to ban and prevent nuclear explosions in any place under its jurisdiction or control. Comprehensive control over compliance with the Treaty falls within responsibilities of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which apply modern technologies in the field of seismic, radionuclide and infra-acoustic control.
CTBTO bodies include: Conference of the State Parties, Preparatory Commission, Provisional Technical Secretariat.
Provisional Technical Secretariat implement control over the work of the International monitoring system of nuclear tests (IMS), and International data center (IDC), provide assistance in installing and exploitation of monitoring stations and in receiving requests on inspections at places, its processing and preparation, provide technical support in this regard.
Testing regime, which is created within the CTBT include International monitoring system, which in its turn include measures on seismological, radionuclide, hydro-acoustical and infra-acoustical tracking systems, in line with consulting procedures, inspections at places and security measures.
The International system for monitoring nuclear tests is being created in accordance with provisions of the Treaty. The global network will compose of 337 tracking stations (170 seismological stations, 11 hydro-acoustical, 60 ultrasound, 80 radionuclide and 16 radionuclide laboratories). Location of these stations in around 90 countries will be identified with consideration of provision of global nuclear facilities tacking online.
Head-quarters of the Organization are located in Vienna.
The staff comprises more than 260 highly qualified professionals from more than 70 countries.
On Co-Chairmanship of Kazakhstan in the CTBT Article XIV Conference
During the meeting of Minister of Foreign Affairs E. Idrissov with Executive Secretary if the Preparatory Committee of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (hereinafter – CTBTO) L. Zerbo within 8th CTBT Article XIV Conference in September 2013 in New York there was a recommendation for Kazakhstan to come forward as a candidate to co-chairmanship of the 9th Conference in 2015.
These conferences a held once in two years in New York during the UN General Assembly Session, and it attract broad attention of international community.
Overall, the activity of co-chairs is focused on implementing unofficial arrangement of a plan of actions aimed at facilitating the universalization of the Treaty.
The above mentioned plan of actions stipulates undertaking of regional conferences, round tables, briefings and other events. This work also involves diplomatic missions of co-chairing countries, which in their turn shall inform diplomatic corps of accredited countries on activities implemented in this regard.
During the CTBTO meeting in Vienna on February 23, 2015 Kazakhstan and Japan were appointed as co-chairs of the CTBT Article XIV Conference for 2015-2017.
In accordance with their obligations, Kazakhstan and Japan acted as co-chairs at the 9th CTBT Article XIV Conference which took place on September 29 in New York within the UN General Assembly.
Uniqueness of the co-chairmanship of Kazakhstan and Japan is in the fact, that both countries suffered from nuclear weapons and have moral right to address other countries which did not sign and/or ratify the CTBT and to urge them to do so as soon as possible.
It is worth highlighting that President Nazarbayev in his Nation Addresses as of 2011-2012 made a task to ensure global leadership of Kazakhstan in nuclear security and global antinuclear movement.
In this regard Kazakhstan is willing to actively use the CTBTO platform to promote its initiatives in the fields of disarmament and non-proliferation and to raise awareness about the idea of non-nuclear world, ban of nuclear tests including by the example of Kazakhstan.
One of the prime tasks in the field of non-proliferation is gradual universalization of the CTBT through increasing number states which signed or ratified this Treaty. In this regard, Kazakhstan and Japan address other states, which did not sign and/or ratify the CTBT and to urge them to do so as soon as possible.
During the visit of Japanese Prime Minister S. Abe leaders of our countries made a joint statement approving their firm commitment to achieve early entry into force of the CTBT. This document is the first one adopted at such high political level, where countries appeal other CTBT Annex II countries which did not sign and/or ratify the CTBT to do so as soon as possible.
On cooperation of Kazakhstan with the CTBTO
Head of Kazakh foreign agency signed the CTBT on September 30, 1996. The Treaty was ratified by the law of the Republic of Kazakhstan No 270-II as of December 14, 2001 and entered into force in Kazakhstan in May 12, 2002.
Efforts of Kazakhstan in universalization of the CTBT and facilitation of its ratification by other states virtually relates to all basic elements of the control regime.
1. Establishment and operation of observational stations of IMS of Kazakh sector.
In accordance with the Protocol to the CTBT for 1999-2006 construction of five new IMS stations were completed in Kazakhstan: four seismological and one infra-acoustic. As a result of these works the following facilities successfully operates in Kazakhstan:
- one station of basic seismological network PS-Makanchi – seismic group (c 2000);
- three stations of auxiliary seismic network: AS057-Borovoe – seismic group backup for the basic network (since 2002), AS058-Kurchatov – seismic group (since 2006), AS059-Aktubinsk – three component station (since 2005).
- station of infra-sound network IS031-Aktubinsk (since 2001).
All of these stations were completed international certification successfully in 2002-2006 and are working 24/7.
Additionally, in support of the CTBT and in accordance with the Agreement with the USA two more seismic groups were constructed: Akbulak in West Kazakhstan and Karatau in South Kazakhstan. Moreover, 11 more restored, modernized stations are functioning as potential cooperating national facilities.
Thus among four control technologies, applied in International monitoring system, Kazakhstan has two – seismic and infra-sound.
2. Creation and work of Kazakh national data center.
Data center in Almaty, established under the support of the CTBTO and Norwegian Seismic Array NORSAR, works in permanent cooperation with IMS and IDC. Communication network include 132 communication channels which ensure automated data collection online from every Kazakh monitoring stations.
Data center issue bulletins of various operational responsiveness, data bases of various thematic directions (model events, nuclear explosions etc.). Promt processing analysis of infra-sound monitoring data is conducted regularly. Systemic data exchange with 7 international data centers is implemented.
Since June 21, 2010 the Regional training center for specialists of Central Asian countries on processing nuclear monitoring data is operating on the basis of Kazakh national Data center. This project was implemented jointly with the Government of Norway and CTBT PTC.
3. Support of measures on Inspection regime at places.
On the initiative of Kazakhstan and in accordance with the decision of CTBT Preparatory Commission four field experiments on inspection at places were conducted in Kazakhstan: in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008.
For the purpose of the field experiments Kazakhstan provided the territory of former Semipalatinsk test site (STS), which contributed to undertaking trainings in realistic conditions.
It is worth highlighting that the experiment conducted in Kazakhstan in 1999 was the first in the history of the CTBT, and took place with participation of 7 states.
Training Kazakh specialists in courses organized by PTS.
In the period of 1998-2014 around 70 Kazakh specialists completed internships and trainings in courses organized in the line of CTBTO PTS in Kazakhstan, Austria, Germany, Japan, France, Russia, Norway, USA, China and other countries.
Use of nuclear monitoring data in civil purposes.
Thanks to establishment of the nuclear tests monitoring system a significant amount of information is being received on seismic activity in the territory of Kazakhstan. These new data had led to new results.
Necessity to bring corrections to the Kazakh map seismic regionalization and norm of anti-seismic construction in various regions was identified. Data being received allows implementing security control in the region of Caspian Sea, where oil is produced, and to control development of post-explosion processes on the territory of former Semipalatinsk rest site.
At the outcomes of monitoring data analysis catalogues of industrial explosions in Kazakh mining plants were formed. Preliminary consultations with all interested parties on possible construction of radionuclide monitoring station in Kazakhstan were started.